Roleplaying Systems
#1
Section 1:  GM and Rolls

The GM/Game Master acts as the primary storyteller and referee of a game.

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-GM-less System:  The main story is created by all players involved and/or the main rules are equally accessible to all players.  For example, two players playing a card game.

-Ruleless System: The GM tells the main story however they want, but the results players can encounter is mainly up to the GM. For example, the GM might decide one player is their "favorite" to wrap up.

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Rolls:  Popularized by Dungeons and Dragons and other tabletop games, a dice is one way to randomly determine the results of an action.  Generally, a d(number) is shorthand for a dice with a number of sides.  Most regular board games have a d6/ 6-sided die.

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-d20 System:

-Dice Check: This is the dice that Dungeons and Dragons use to check the success of a skill inside or out of combat.  Generally, the number has to be above a set DC (dice check) for the skill to succeed, and the GM can quickly set the DC as 5/10/15/20/25/30 to determine how much skill is required to succeed.  For example, a player needs to open a locked door, requiring to beat a DC of 15.

-Criticals and Fails:  Some GMs will consider rolling an unmodded 20 a critical success and unmodded 1 a critical fail.  In some cases, a natural 20 can beat a DC of 30 and/or provide additional benefits (and the same holds true for a natural 1).

-Multi-Part Roll: In D&D, it's generally 6 seconds per round, enough to move and attack. However, some players choose to be extra fancy on their turn, so the GM can decide to make DCs for each part of a complicated turn. For example, a player that thinks he can no-sell an attack, teleport close and restrain them while giving a "you suck" speech and expecting backup dancers to applaud can be subjected up to five rolls.

-Inverse Dice Check:  In this system, a lower number is a better score (where 1 is a critical success).  Two examples of games that benefit from this system is Golf (lower number of strokes to score a hole) and Operation (how far your hand moves versus the size of the hole).

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d6 System:

-Semi-d20:  See d20 rules.  It is also possible to add another d6 to change the success rate of the rolls, with 2 (double 1) as critical fail and 12 (d12) as critical success.

-Fate Dice:  These dices are known for having 3 kinds of faces: +, - and blank.  An average of 4 dices is rolled, adding or subtracting from a base of 0, to determine the success of an action (which ranges from -4 to +4).  If you're using a regular dice, you can convert the rolls if you can draw lines through the dots:
--4 and 5 makes a +
--2 and 3 makes a -
--1 and 6 makes a 0/blank

-Yes/No:  4 and above is Yes/3 and below is No.  Or if you want to have a more specific result:
--6 Yes And- You succeed and you gain a benefit.
--5 Yes- You simply succeed.
--4 Yes But- You succeed but you get a drawback.
--3 No But- You fail an action but you gain a small benefit.
--2 No- You simply fail.
--1 No And- You fail and you get a drawback.

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Cards System:

Some GMs use tarot cards or playing cards.  Unlike dice, cards have a "preset" probability and cards played can be set aside to narrow the remaining cards in play.  In Dungeons and Dragons, this can represent the Deck of Many Things, a magic item with random effects good for 52 uses (aka the number of cards in a playing deck).

War- This card game is played by having a higher number than the other player, with Ace as the lowest number that can beat a King.

Suits - Playing cards have Hearts/Diamonds/Clubs/Spades.  In Alice in Borderland, these four suits represent different challenges ranging from physical activities to games of wits and trust.
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#2
Section 2: Stats and Modifiers

Some games will use Stats to give diversity to the players.  Usually, players can modify these Stats before the game starts.

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Stat-less: A game that does not depend on stats, usually focusing on narrative.

Two Stats:
-The two stats can be one scaled stat that opposes each other. For example, rolling low in Lasers and Feelings determines the success of a Laser action and rolling high would determine the success of a Feeling diplomacy, and the game ends if a place forces either "stat" to the extreme.

Tri-Stat:
--Body: Focused on physical activities like strength and moving.
--Mind: Focused on mental activities like intelligence and learning.
--Spirit: Focused on ideals like luck and determination, and may also include psychic abilities.
*Some games also use the low number of Stats to combine their scores for actions.  For example, using determined Spirit to push beyond what the Body can normally do.

D&D Stats:
--Strength: How strong you are.  Also affects most melee combat.
--Dexterity:  How fast/steady you are.  Also affects movement and ranged combat.
--Constitution:  How resistant your body is.
--Intelligence:  How knowledgeable you are on a topic like history and magic.  Also affects spells based requiring study.
--Wisdom:  How knowledgeable you are based on survival skills such as handling animals.  Also affect spells that work with nature.
--Charisma:  How good you are talking to people.  Also affect spells that manipulate the mind.

Indirect Stats:  Some games may let you alter these stats directly, though they are usually determined by the above stats or by other means.
--HP: How many hits you can take before you fall.  This stat is usually determined by the class and Constitution/Body.
--MP/Spell Slots:  How many spells you can cast within a certain time frame.  This stat is usually determined by the class.
--Movement:  How many spaces your character can move.  This is usually determined by the race.
--Armor (AC):  How much damage you resist, or in Dungeons and Dragons, the likelihood you can be hit.  This is mainly determined by the type of armor worn:
--Damage:  How much damage you can deal.  This is mainly determined by the weapon equipped.

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How to determine starting stats:
-Point Pool:  You give players a number of points to invest into a stat.
-Dice Rolls:  Stats are determined by dice, either assigning them as rolled or choosing which roll goes to which stat.
-Defects:  Some GMs will offer additional points to players if they choose a drawback.

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Modifiers:  While some games will use the Stats directly, other games like Dungeons and Dragons translates the stats into a Bonus.  For example, a person with a stat of 10 may have 0 bonus while a person with a stat of 30 maxes out at +10.  In Dungeons and Dragons, the Bonuses are added to skills:

-On an attack, a Fighter can hit a goblin by rolling a d20 and adding his Strength to show his skill of weapons (roll of 10 + 3 Strength bonus beats the goblin's 12 AC).  And his sword deals 1d8 damage to the goblin (roll of 6 + 3 Strength bonus = 9 damage)

In Dungeons and Dragons, there are also other modifiers.  Some modifiers will affect a stat directly while other modifiers only modify "mini-stats":

-A Bard with +1 Charisma wears a Ring of Fancy that gives +2 Charisma and +4 Deception.  He rolls a deceiving tale of 10  + 1 + 2 + 4 = 17 to woo a girl, but is unable to persuade a night with her on another roll of 10 + 1 + 2 = 13.

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Skill Check "Accuracy"

Advantage:  These are good positions and represented by rolling a dice twice, choosing the higher number.  One example is a Barbarian's Rage, which gives them Advantage of Strength skills like combat.  Another example is taking a turn to Aim, using the next turn to have Advantage.

Disadvantage:  These are bad positions and represented by rolling a dice twice, choosing the lower number.  One example is Disarming Shot, meaning that you are aiming at a smaller part of a body.  Another example is being blinded while attacking.

Inspiration:  An Advantage given by the GM for any dice check, ideally rewarded by impressing the GM through narrative actions or character development.

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Success Modifier

Success At A Cost: If you are 1 or 2 points short of a DC, the GM can allow the action to happen but with a hindrance. For example, a roll of 13 against 13 AC allows the player to hit a goblin, but a roll of 12 can normally make the attack miss or have the goblin warn others as the attack hits him.

Degrees Of Failure: Some skill checks may have different results based on how far a roll is from the skill check, usually by a gap of 5. For example, if wooing a girl requires a DC of 15, a Barbarian may simply be turned away if he gets a roll of 13 or slapped if he gets a roll of 9.

-Criticals and Fails: As mentioned before, a 1 or 20 (or the min/max rolls) can have additional results, which can mark the difference between a pick lock not working (2) or breaking (1).

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Note that, in some games, NPCs and enemies will also have these these Stats meaning they can also experience the same modifiers.
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#3
Section 3:  Character Templates

Some RPs will allow the player to simply insert your character as is, but some RPs will require a template.  The template also doubles as a sign-in sheet and allows the GM to determine if the character is allowable in the setting.

Some RPs will have templates without including the Stats mentioned before.  Here are some ideal parameters when designing a template:

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Storytelling:

-Name: The name of your character.
-Gender:  The sex of your character; use to be male/female, but can be expanded to use pronouns such as he/she/they.
-Size:  Height and Weight.  In some games, humanoids are Medium creatures that can mount Large and larger creatures.
-Race:  In games like Dungeons and Dragons, races have different bonuses as well as relations to other races.

-Language: Most RPs will use Common/English, but this is generally used to interact with other races and decipher their writings.
-Alignment: D&D suggests a Lawful/Neutral/Chaotic (how you interact to rules and social norms) plus Good/Neutral/Evil (morality).
-Appearance:  A picture, or if you don't have one, a brief description of what they look like.

-Personality Trait:  How your character usually acts.  IE, a Barbarian that can't say no to a pretty girl.
-Ideals:  What drives your character forward, whether that is revenge, destiny, or a philosophy.
-Bonds:  How you relate to other characters, creatures or even items.
-Flaws:  The downside of your character.
-Background: The origin of your character, as simple as being born into nobility.  D&D gives extra bonuses based on the background chosen like extra gold or language.

-Secret: If the GM asks for it, PM a character detail to him so that the GM can reveal it later in the RP.

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RPG (D&D):

Level: The current level of your character. 
Class: What your character fights as.
Max HP:  Total HP.  In D&D, characters at level 1 start with their class HP plus Constitution Bonus.
Armor: In D&D, the number an enemy has to beat to hit you.
Initiative:  A modifier added to the first d20 in combat, to determine when a player or enemy can act.
Speed:  How many feet a character can move in a single turn, usually 30 ft. 

Bonuses: What a Stat translates to as a Bonus, which in turn is used to modify skills and attack rolls.
Saving Throws:  The Bonus rolls used to "evade" certain attacks.  Since some Stats will have bonuses, this is a quick way to see what those numbers would be.

Weapons:  Currently equipped so you can see the weapon's damage and type bonus.
Attacks/Spellcasting:  Quick notes on minor spells, number of spell slots and prepared spells, and special ways to use equipment.
Currency: How much money you have.  Some RPGs can use different currencies, such as silver and gold pieces or global credits and local coins.
Equipment:  Whatever is on the character including weapons and items.  Some notes can be put down for certain equipment not described in weaponry such as heavy armor that makes sneaking difficult.

Skills:  In D&D, these are different Modifiers based on Stats that can be improved by other features.  For example, Medicine and Animal Handling are both Wisdom skills but a player might have a bonus in Animal Handling.
Passive Perception: Some Skills are always in check.  In this case, the Wisdom skill Perception is a natural awareness of their surroundings
Proficiency/Expertise: Equipment that your character can use.  If they can't use that equipment, they suffer Disadvantage.
Features/Traits:  Abilities that affects how a character is played, from seeing in the dark and knowing code to gaining advantages in battle.

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Dots/Tokens:  These will be ways to track changes in characters.

*Proficiency Bonus:  Placing these in Skills and Saving Throws allows the players to quickly spot which skills have a different Bonus from their Stats.

*Conditions:  Good or bad things happening to your character, and removing one by one after some time passes.

*Death Saves:  In D&D, whenever you start a turn at 0 HP, you make a roll with 10 or higher a success.  If not damaged, 3 failures lead to death while 3 successes prevent further Death Saves from occurring (but still requires healing).
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#4
Wow! How much research were you doing behind the scenes?
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#5
For this topic?  Admittedly little, but figured any info is good info.

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Section 4: What Goes In A Turn


First, it is important to note that a "turn" in DnD is equal to 6 seconds in the game and the most common things a person can do in a turn includes any combination of action, talking and moving up to 30 feet. 

Second, the shortest time for a Rest (where a player can regain some HP) is 1 hour.  This means that it would take 600 turns for someone to complete that short rest or for a character to move a total of 3 1/2 miles!

Thankfully, the 6-second turn is mainly used for combat. 

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Combat:

This has the shortest and most consistent time frame.  In DnD, combat officially starts after everyone rolls Initiative to determine the turn order, though it is possible for a group to conduct a Surprise Attack before the Initiative if one side is unprepared for battle.  A turn is compose of any combination of the following:

-1 Action such as fighting or quickly getting away.
-1 Bonus Action assuming you have the ability.
-Brief Communication
-1 Interaction with object or feature like a door or sheath.
-Movement before or after Action up to your highest movement speed.
-1 Reaction, declaring a trigger for a future action to enact on anyone's turn.

Ideally, a post in combat should be brief and in the moment, each person taking one turn .  Combat is over when all participants are unable or unwilling to fight.

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Non-Combat:

By combat standards, it will take 600 turns/posts of dialogue to reach an in-game hour. Since the topics here show 25 posts per page (2-1/2 minutes of dialogue), one could say that an activity like shopping would not progress the time of day unless they decide to join the Rest.

Outside of combat, time will actually flow faster to create a bit of urgency and to allow players to progress through the setting faster. Here is the suggested time scales:

-While exploring a small place like a dungeon, it should take minutes to explore the halls and check for traps.
-In a city, it would take hours to walk from one end to another. Even walking around the edges of Walmart or a walk from the house to a gas station and back can be an hour.
-When traveling long distances, like from a city to another, it may take days.

Keep in mind these time scales assume that these are fantasy adventurers deciding to walk on foot. Here are some modifiers of the traveling time:

-The actual rate the adventurers are moving; going fast can make them less aware and going slow can make them stealthy.
-The actual amount of hours the adventurers spend moving; more than 8 hours can tire them out.
-Vehicles or mounts can make them travel faster without wearing them out.
-Difficult terrain such as deserts and snow, different than a well-traveled road, can slow down parties that don't have a guide.

Thankfully, D&D also includes Downtime Activities that allows players to do and gain something while there is nothing happening.

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Unless you are playing in a setting where time is screwy, this is the suggested time flow:

-A character in Rest stays at Rest unless someone does interfere with them.
-Combat should not advance non-combat posts. The minutes after combat ends should allow times to sync.
-Traveling in cities or other large places and other non-combat activities should eventually progress a character's Rest.
-It is ideal for all players to band together during a journey from one place to another. Otherwise, a person left behind would have to somehow catch up, usually by increasing their speed
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#6
Interesting so far...

That being said...
"A character in Rest stays at Rest unless someone does interfere with them."
When did inertia get involved?
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#7
To clarify on the Rest thing:  For a Long Rest, usually 8 hours, it points out that one of the Rest activities is to do a night watch for no more than 2 hours.  Hence, while shaking someone awake would not break the Rest benefit immediately, activities that don't make them relaxed such as continuous poking or an assassin attack can break the Rest.

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Section 5:  Classes and Characters

Most of the time in a modern setting, players are likely to join as a Civilian.  So naturally, people in a fantasy world would be swordsman and mages, right?  As a guy who played a bear when everyone was a human inside a fetish RP, I can tell you that some people will be "creative" with their characters if they can.

When creating an RP, you want to create gateways first.  A common gateway is a template or sign-up sheet, but you can also mention what kind of characters you want.

However, you should never kick a character out once they're in an RP.  You could enforce a three-strike rule beforehand or throw in challenges and tricks if a character does misbehave, but kicking a player's character out colors you as an "my way" GM and hurts the players that put effort into their characters.  After all, a RP is not about the GM needing more people for his story but the players acting out their own in a setting provided by the GM.  Also, if a player was creative for a rejected character, they're also creative for a character with a different set of skills (so you might be swapping out a sneaky rogue for a demolition expert even for a reason like their nose.)

Another reason you don't want to kick out characters is because the players can do that if they wish to (with consequences).  After all, there are Paladins that swore an oath of good working with grabby rogues and evil warlocks in Dungeons and Dragons.

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Types of Acceptance:

-Freeform - No character limit.  This is dangerous as the GM might assume everyone will be one human and the players join in with animals or multiple characters.

-Template - Players create their characters to sign in.  If you don't tell players to wait, however, they will assume that templates only provide information.

-Pre-Generated - Players will choose an existing character, ie starting with the Sailor Scouts. 

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I was originally going to craft a list of classes, but that would take a bit long to cover even the basic settings.  Instead, here's a quick design tip for coming up with classes in an RP:

-Create a Level 0 class.  This would usually be the Commoner/Civilian that normally has no special traits. Posting this class is optional.
-Create 1 or 2 classes for each fighting stat.  People usually start with Strength/Agility/Magic stats.
-Create an "All" class.  This is not an overpowered class but rather a class that should be able to access all stat-related abilities. Posting this class is optional.

-Don't craft a "dual-stat" class unless you are crafting subclasses. Some people may decide to focus on one stat.
-Don't craft subclasses. You can suggest paths for players to build their characters, but you can't be sure that you'll get enough players to try all those paths.

Example:
-Barbarian uses Strength to deal big damage to the point that armor is optional.
-Fighter uses many Strength styles, able to use more actions to land more attacks.
-Rogue uses Agility to move quickly under cover so they can strike swiftly.
-Ranger uses Agility to strike from afar against their foes.
-Wizards uses Intelligence to cast spells, recording them so they never forget their abilities.
-Sorcerers uses Intelligence to cast spells, their birthrights allowing them to shape spells as needed.

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There is going to be one issue: How do you define the classes? This would come in two parts: How do we use these stats and how will the classes enhance these stats?

First, it'll be easy to define these damage stats by how damage is dealt. Since Strength will be focused on melee attacks, most melee weapons will work on this. However, our Agility classes would use weapons that require a steadier hand instead of brute force, so our bows and daggers will benefit from a steadier hand even if the latter are melee weapons.

However, making wands cast magic by this process means that the other classes could just use "magic" as an alternative to bows. Instead, we would have to create a "spellcasting" feature that restricts the magic to those who can use it now or later, either by itself or as a MP resource. It also seems that, if we do go with an MP route, we would have to make magic more powerful that regular weapons.

And this is where the differences in classes come from. Assuming that the beginning weapons and spells deal the same damage, we can first try to increase their damage with their related stats. However, anyone with equal stats can use all damage dealers equally, so the next step is how these classes can squeeze more damage out for that one stat, and if necessary, how classes using the same stat deals their damage differently.

For example, Barbarians and Fighters are both Strength-based classes, but Barbarian focus on accuracy and boost their main attack while Fighters will focus on damage and gain more attacks per round. Rogues gain an ability to deal extra damage when in advantage and has abilities to relocate to better positions whereas Rangers start with the knowledge of getting through difficult terrains unhindered. While no other classes can access magic, Wizards will remember all their magics but Sorcerers can bend their magic even literally around cover.
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#8
Section 6:  Adding Abilities/Progression

An RP is mainly about getting from Point A to Point B.  If that is literally the case, the DM might do this:

-Linear Path: Completing the RP means going forward, with little to no distraction.
-Tour Guide: When the story only advances around a NPC.

You can tell, unless there are some interesting gimmicks, that this is less of roleplaying and more of being side characters.  That is why some RPs tend to be open:

-Sandbox:  No goals in sight, players are able to do anything.  Example: a shop.
-Endgame: 1 known goal, players are able to do anything.  Example, powering a tower on an island.

The issue is that players or their characters will eventually feel like they're not gaining anything meaningful.  Though perhaps there should be some middle-ground, having some form of narrative while allowing some openness to explore.

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Progressing in a RP means adding some type of indicator to let the players know their characters have the ability to get closer to their goals. In most tabletop RPGs, the most recognizable progression is Level, which is usually precluded by Experience. Here are some examples of earning and calculating EXP:

-The traditional method where monsters give a certain amount of EXP, usually with a character's required amount to level up increasing per level.
-The static method where monsters of the same level as the player gives a set amount of EXP and the player requires the same amount to level up each time; leveling will cause the weaker and stronger monsters to shift their EXP lower.
-The end method where levels are only given after a session/checkpoint.

As for levels, a DnD character can reach level 20 though the first RP session usually levels the character to 5. When a character levels, this usually triggers three types of traits:

-Automatic Traits - Occurs every level with little to no reference required. Usually, the character's HP increases by class.
-Generic Traits - Occurs the same way in every class. At level 4, players can place 2 points into their Stats. At level 5, they gain a Proficiency Bonus.
-Class Traits - How the class levels up its own way. Some classes like the Fighter add Generic Traits outside of generic timing.

Also, it seems that the character will start with their signature skills at Level 1 and gain most of their core mechanics and subclasses by Level 3; further levels are mainly to boost their identities or core abilities.

For example, a Barbarian at Level 1 has a Strength Advantage ability and a AC comparable to heavy armor without a speed debuff. At Level 3, they should have an emergency advantage and dodge plus a subclass based on extra damage or rage bonus. After those three level, future class traits focus on increasing melee damage, better movement, and more advantages.

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Outside of levels, there are other types of progressions:

-Roguelite: DnD is this, but pretty much the character upgrades themselves using whatever they pick up.
-Roguelike: A genre similar to a Roguelite, but when "making a new character", players can unlock and use more options. In Rogue Legacy, for example, the player can uses coins from the castle to unlock more classes and starting bonuses for future runs.

-Metroidvania/Zelda: New areas are accessible after gaining key items/abilities, usually while clearing a dungeon.
-Mega Man: Clearing a dungeon grants key items/abilities, but dungeons can be attempted in any order with the story or new dungeons unlocking at later points.
-Hub by Hub: After some progress, usually with a boss as one progress marker, players can access a new area similar to Sword Arts Online and Mario 64.

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And keeping track of progression in different ways:

-Timer: A "clock" to track when certain events occur. Majora's Mask has a 3-day timer until the moon falls down, while a school can have 2 classes followed by a break, repeating.
-Trophies: In Megaman, defeating 4 out of 8 bosses unlocks a mid-game fight regardless of order. Alternatively, collecting 8 Stars in Mario 64 unlocks the first hub boss.
-Unlocked: In Mario 64, this would be both accessing the hub bosses and new hubs in addition to finding switches to unlock more shortcuts, items, and even ways to earn more starts. In Rogue Legacy, this is what you have bought after you die.
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#9
You know, the idea of a Metriodvania, Mega Man, and Hub-by-Hub playstyles seem pretty interesting.
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#10
Section 7: Difficulty

In Dungeons and Dragons, enemies possess a Challenge Rating that is their version of Levels; ideally a CR of 1 is balanced for a party of 4.  However, a CR1 group of goblins is easier than a CR1 dragon.

Anyway, difficulty is not just for a long adventure.  These are obstacles that a player needs to face, and just because they gain more power and tools doesn't mean that things will become easier for them.

I just played a platformer called Cave Crawler which demonstrates two ways to increase the difficulty of the game:

Mechanics:  The tutorial introduce lava and spike balls.  From each level on, the game introduces a new enemy or obstacle, starting with a regular crab, a falling stalagmite and a pop-up hand to name a few.

Skill:  Spike balls only stay in place but deal one damage when touched and Lava instantly kills the player, but the tutorial introduces them as avoidable obstacles.  In later levels, there are more lava pits, spike balls hang lower on a ceiling, and platforms become smaller.

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Let me covert the two tests above into DnD terms.

Skills are a part of DnD gameplay in the form of d20 checks.  As I mentioned earlier, the difficulty of a check comes in scales of 5 up to 30; each 5 represents a difficulty to beat with 30 being "Godly".  For example, a normal house door might be a 10, but a manor with a heavier gaudy door with a better lock might be a 15, and a king's vault is going to be a 20.  Sometimes, when the difficulty goes up, so does the consequences; a goblin might have a swinging log trap but a cultist can afford a swinging blade trap which can deal more damage from its sharpness and weight.

As for mechanics, there are many ways to introduce more difficulty.  For example, you might fight with goblin scouts that come with clubs and bows, but when you reach their lairs, not only will they add more enemy times like mages and wolf riders, but you also will encounter traps too.  In fact, their tunnel system is also a mechanic as you'll have to adapt from fighting in an open space previously.

At times, there may be two spikes in difficulty.  The first spike are bosses; in Cave Crawler, there is only one boss, but nol only does he have the aiming mechanic of the ceiling turret, but he is the only boss that jumps around.  In an RPG Maker comic, bosses tend to be a review of the mechanics you face, generally a mix of the enemies you have fought; you can think of the boss as a final exam.

The second spike can come in optional content.  In most rougelikes like Slay the Spire, some encounters will be marked differently because they will be stronger than normal enemies.  However, fighting these special encounters can reward the player with special rewards.

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Of course, there are some items that may or may not increase difficulty depending on how it is used.

For example, riddles and puzzles may look like they can become more difficult, but because we are playing on a forum, people might be able to look up the solution despite playing a dumb character.  In-game, some riddles can negate this outside knowledge based on the Intelligence stat which covers in-game history and knowledge.  Still, this should not discourage you from making your players thinks.

Another difficulty would be frequency and fortitude.  For example, your party defeats 4 goblins, then they would defeat 6 goblins the next time and end up fighting 20 goblins at a time; despite the goblins being the same level, it will take time to remove all the goblins.  One way that GMs would counter having to play 20 goblins is to treat the goblins as one unit, giving them some extra actions and a bit of HP, yet weakening them (removing some goblins and actions) when they are damaged.  The fortitude is the opposite with one enemy gaining more HP and some stats and attacks if faced later; this is basically raising the Challenge Rating of an enemy.

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Also, what stops a player from simply reattempting a challenge until they get it right? That depends on several factors:

Recovery - In a jumping challenge, failing once means you fall down.
Limited/Breakage - In a picklock challenge, it is possible that the tool may break, and you can't continue unless you have another picklock.
Alert - In a picklock challenge, a guard may arrive if you take too long to get through the door.

And there are several ways to define failing a challenge:

Bad Luck - You can try and try again.
Definition - Even if you're strong on paper, failing to push a rock defines your strength.
Observation - It's not your eventual ability that matters, it how many times the crowd can tolerate you.
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#11
I think I'll pose a question. Where does luck factor in this? Like for example, suppose something rare would happen like, say, you manage to somehow encounter a shiny HootHoot in the wild, which is a 1 in 4096 chance.
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#12
Section 8: Luck

Luck is getting a certain number which in turn gives additional effects. Usually, the "lucky" number is the highest number on the dice. In DnD, this number is 20 on a d20, which normally succeeds an ability or doubles the damage rolled.

In DnD, there are multiple ways to manipulate the rolls. The main method is Advantage, which allows you to roll 2 d20s and use the higher number (the opposite is Disadvantage that uses the lower number instead). Some abilities like Rage and Stealth will grant advantage, while some conditions like lying prone will cause attackers to gain advantage against that target. And of course, Inspiration granted by the GM also allows the players to make a roll into an Advantage.

Other abilities will alter the rolls or the results. For example, a Rogue or Bard gains a skill to double their proficiency bonus for a certain ability, meaning that a Picklock would be +4 instead of +2 (which would increase to +12 instead of +6 at later levels). In addition, a Rogue or Fighter can also gain an ability that counts a 19 as a 20 for applying the damage bonus. And finally, some classes and spells allow using a stat or flat number to replace a roll.

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In DnD, there are also two "Lucky" attributes. The Halfling Race has "Lucky", which allows the player to reroll if they roll a 1. There is also a Lucky feat (feats can replace the +2 to stats on levelling) that gives the player 3 "Luck Points", which is used to replace a d20 roll with another roll.

Some GMs will prefer to use tables to replace the attack-double bonus of a critical roll.

And some other tabletop RPGs has an alternative to d20 called Exploding Dice. That is, if you roll the highest number, you can roll again; this will repeat if you roll the highest number again. Monopoly also inspired a Matching Dice variant where, if you roll two dice and the numbers match, the player can roll again.

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Some other tabletop RPGs has a Luck stat, usually replacing Charisma. Here are different ways the Luck Stat is used.

-Luck is a normal stat, mainly used for checking luck in gambling games or other types of gambles.

-Luck is a currency used to either reroll or enhance a roll. Usually, a Rogue character has this stat if Luck is one of the three stats.

-Luck is used as a stat and currency. In this case, the player has to roll lower than the stat, and 1 Luck is deducted after succeeding and changing the result; starting with a higher Luck stat allows more success, and this prevents "lucky" players from repeatedly abusing the mechanic.

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It also goes without saying that some numbers will be considered unlucky; the DnD number is 1 on a d20. Having an Advantage or the Halfling's Lucky trait reduces the chance of enacting this number while a Disadvantage can make this number more likely. Monopoly's Matching Dice system also employs a bad luck on a good luck roll - getting a third matching pair in a row would send you straight to Jail.

In some games, getting unlucky isn't that bad. In some games that use the d4 dice, rolling a 1 would actually add a point to future dice rolls. In other games, rolling underneath for a skill check would improve that stat as a sort of "practice makes perfect" mechanic.
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#13
You know, aside from characters and gameplay mechanics, the setting should also be accounted for in an RP. This usually involves a time, a place, or even both. Some settings would require a map, be it a world map or just a map of where you have been (with ? icons of where to go next), while other settings are more pick-up-and-go. Some settings even have their own rules that may seem different from what you'd expect, like for example, Anonymated Rubbery Rooms. How does one go about the setting of a roleplaying session?
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#14
Section 9: Settings and Maps



A setting is best described as a time and place where an event takes place.  A story tends to have two settings:  the immediate surrounding like a room or town, and the world it is in.  For instance, Pokemon is a world with monsters that can be captured, with adventurers usually in towns or roads.  Usually, the first post by the GM describes one of both of these settings, with the immediate setting either as a gathering point or near the main setting of the game.



As you may guess, the most common setting would be Modern, considering we are living close to references.  The next two common settings are Fantasy and Sci-Fi; there are plenty of games and shows that cover these genres in different yet similar ways.  In fact, a GM is likely to base a game on whatever they just watched or played.



Just keep in mind that elements like magic and technology, which may seem different, can co-exist or not fit together.



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How to unite two different concepts

Like Sweet and Sour Pork, one kind of setting involves a mish-mash of concepts.  The most common case is Magic and Technology, which are usually the focus of past Fantasy and future Sci-Fi.  Ideally, these concepts are two different studies of the universe, one thought to die out and another being unnatural, yet some settings explore how these ideas work:

Isekai/Hidden World - A modern character heads into a hidden world of magic such as Hogwarts or the Boiling Isles, or being thrown into a fantasy world like in Konasuba and Shield Hero.  There tends to be a connection between the character and the new world, such as a mentor or a system similar to an RPG UI.

The Tech Race - In magical worlds such as Warcraft and Lost Ark, some races are more inclined to technology like the gnomes and the cyborgs, usually since their predecessors or gods have a more mechanical form.  Code Geass demonstrates the arms race in some Final Fantasy games where one nation is more technologically advanced than other nations, either due to access to a key resource or denying other nations the chance to exploit it.

Magecraft - Opposite to the Tech Race, some technology are able to replicate magic.  This was demonstrated in Boruto where he used tools to replicate some Jitsus.  This kind of setting can also be used with real magic; as the Nasuverse best points out, magi can do things that normal people can't, but their "spells" pale in comparison to what they consider true magic.

Another setting that meshes two concepts together is Steampunk, which imagines a technological advance if it happened during an early age like the Wild West.

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Scales of a Setting:

Room - Things here tend to be in sight and reach.  Generally, no map is required, though it may help if you are doing an escape room.  You can take care of things in seconds.

Houses - There tends to be multiple rooms.  A map is somewhat useful if it is a bigger house or if the gameplay involves tracking players.  Moving from room to room may take minutes.

Towns - There tends to be multiple houses.  If it is a pitstop with the general RPG shops, a map would not be needed, but a bigger or flavorful town might find it useful.  Moving from place to place can take minutes or hours.

Paths - From point A to point B.  Generally does not need a map.

Mazes - A more complicated path.  A map is optional as the alternative is to simply write down the correct path.

Continents and Countries - Places in relationship to each other.  A map is optional yet flavorful.  May take days to get from one place or another.

Worlds and Planes -  Worlds that the setting has.  A map is useful here and it is nearly impossible to travel from one place to another using common modes of transportation.

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Maps

Maps are one way to figure out how the setting works, usually on a spatial level.  Some RPs can be played without a map, but it might be a useful tool to use if you need to keep track of certain elements or have a general plan of action.

First, let's see the scales of a setting:

Timeline - This is mainly useful for figuring out when the GM wants to introduce new elements.  Some games like Day of the Tentacle can also mark down interactions that literally affect future effects.

Blueprint - Blueprints are common online, so it is possible to just grab one as a reference.

Arrows and Squares - One way to use the storyboard-like map is to link different rooms through their doors, adding in indicators of which paths are blocked and where special items are located, sometimes using arrows to determine if players can move back.  Another way is to create a flowchart where the GM can check if players meet a certain requirement and work from there.

Grid - Common in DnD games, each grid represents a unit of measure which can be occupied by objects and tokens.  If you don't have a board, you can use a spreadsheet.  Player movement is rigid but they only have to worry about single front and back attacks.

Hex - Some games and variants use this six-sided grid since there is more freedom in uniform movement.  However, some games may also use the extra spaces to widen the front and back attack areas.

If you are feeling adventurous, you may also use a board game as well.  While some board games like Chess is useful for battle, some games like Monopoly can be used for events like racing.
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#15
Since death is usually a no-no in fetish RPGs, any idea on how to handle Death/Game Over conditions and such?
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#16
Section 10: Death Sentences and Endings

In an RP, it is most likely that the GM and players want to achieve a "good ending".  This is usually obtained after completing the most important goal; this can range from defeating the Big Bad to escaping a facility.  However, RPs are not like stories since there are rules for success and failure, and some failures may end the game badly.

First, a good ending is the ideal conclusion of events.  After the ending, the players should have no more reason to continue their adventure.  Keep in mind that a RP is not like a story in the sense that players can come up with solutions that works in ways you did not plan.  For example, if an asylum RP's good ending is achieved by escaping an asylum, players might choose to dig, disguise or explode their way out; these actions all achieve the same goal of escaping but may have different "minor" consequences.  If you want a "better" ending, it may be ideal to tie the condition to extra objectives (escape before warden arrives, gather evidence of corruption) rather than a single path.

Then there are bad endings.  These endings usually occur when every player is in no state to continue; this usually happens when all players are "dead", though certain status effects, states of inescapability or loss of purpose can fulfill this state as well.  Alternatively, the GM can put in a "bad ending" if players drag the RP away from the main story.  Neir Automata is a game filled with bad endings, by taking out their main chip or walking away from the story.

Usually, the main form of bad endings involve the party's death.  In Dungeons and Dragons, death is mostly permanent; very few and powerful spells can reverse this status within a short time frame, which is why a bad ending rarely involves reviving the party.  There are two ways to become dead: the most known way is to have the player's HP drop to 0, but they then have to fail three saving dice throws (or gain more damage) during this state to actually die. The second way is to get six stacks of Exhaustion, a special status effect that mainly occurs if a player fails to use survival skills (ie starvation and dehydration).

It should go without saying that a bad ending shouldn't be sprung at players without a warning.  It is probably a better idea not to plan bad endings, though if you need to plan "deaths", high-HP damage factors like traps and creatures should give an illusion of a chance.

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I'm also aware that one of the rules I put down is "no death".  What I mean is not to make that event (or any events leading up to that event) graphical.  While some of the kinky RPs I've played did not experience death, there are ways to substitute death, both the status effect and the system.

The status effect "death" depends on what your RP is and can be substituted for a bad ending or a KO.  For example, an asylum escape RP can send failed players to solitary confinement, which can be A) a hassle for other players to rescue them and B) an issue if needing to escape within a certain time period.  Ideally, "death" can be substituted for a high-level petrification/restraint status effect.

However, the DnD death system doesn't have to be the only inspiration for death systems.  In Vermintide, players that are KO'd don't die but instead are tied up at a future checkpoint.  In Honey Heist, getting a 0 in Criminal or Bear stats would cause that player to become a full-fledged Criminal/Bear and leave the party.  In Borderlands, there are respawn stations that rebuild you for a fee.

In addition, just because a character dies doesn't mean the adventure is over.  In some cases, the GM will allow the player to make a new character, though whether said character is boosted or has to train from scratch may determine the effectiveness of this mercy.  In addition, you can decide to have a sidequest into the afterlife or other plane to retrieve your absent party member.

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From personal experience, I would handle "bad ends" in two ways.  Usually, if a character were to go into an inescapable state, I would decide to release them later but with a disadvantage, usually in the form of relocation.  If a player decides they want to depart from the RP, their ending would be finalized.

How these endings work depends on the type of settings involved, but generally places of chaos like a magical mall or a haunted house has more teleportation while orderly places like a factory would release on the spot.
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